First, if you are using S-ATA/P-ATA drives, your system should just work.
If however you get a blue screen 'Stop 0x0000007b - Inaccessible Boot Device", them the operating system doesn't recognize the new disk controller, and some action is needed.
Moving from P-ATA to S-ATA
Most likely, your BIOS settings for the S-ATA drive is
'RAID', 'Native', or similar, and the operating system doesn't support S-ATA
Please go to BIOS, and change the S-ATA settings to 'Legacy' or similar.
In 'Legacy' mode, your S-ATA disk behaves exactly like a P-ATA disk, and should be supported by the all versions of Windows.
Moving from P-ATA to P-ATA or S-ATA to S-ATA
in some cases, not all supported S-ATA and P-ATA
controllers are enabled.
If you have booted from BartPE/WindowsPE.
you can run
to enable more/all IDE controllers.
see also c't 6/05 und Microsoft KB 314082.
moving to a different SCSI/RAID/iSCSI/'interesting' disk controller
If you restored using BartPE, WindowsPE oder Winbuilder, you can integrate a
new controller into the restored windows system.
will ask you for the disk controller driver file (DiskDriver.SYS), the .INF file (DiskDriver.INF), and the location of the windows where it shall be installed (NewDrive:\Windows).
Next time the system boots, this driver will be started; it's your responsibility to locate the right driver.
Even if the system boots now, it is highly recommended to re-install the driver in the booted windows environment (using the official setup command), as some Controls will be missing.